From Modern Mythcraft to Magical Surrealism

A Critique of Muslim Women in Comics — The 99

While I believe there is very little known about the images and roles of women in comic books, the subject of how Muslim female characters are portrayed is even smaller. There is at least one comic company interested in realistic, nuanced portrayals of Muslim women: Teshkeel Comics. Naif Al-Mutawa’s The 99 shows us arguably the best depictions of Muslim female characters to have ever appeared in comic books.

Judging by the title, it shouldn’t come as a surprise to Muslim readers that Naif Al-Mutawa’s The 99 is inspired by Islamic culture and religion. For those who are unfamiliar, the title of the comic refers to an Islamic teaching that God has 99 Beautiful Names or Attributes. Al-Mutawa draws from this tradition and produces remarkable superheroes — most of them teenagers who each embody one of the 99 Names of God.

The story begins in Baghdad in the mid-13th century when the Mongol invasion threatens the great city and most importantly, the Dar al-Hikma, or “The House of Wisdom.” As many history buffs know, the library of Baghdad doesn’t survive — the Mongols destroy it and burn every book — but Al-Mutawa explores the human imagination and shows us an untold story of librarians and scholars who preserve the library’s knowledge within 99 mystical gems known as Noor Stones (“Noor” being the Arabic word for “Light”). The Noor stones were taken to Andalusia and preserved in a fortress, but one man’s thirst for power caused the fortress to erupt and scatter the stones all around the world. We are brought to the present day in Paris, where a scholar named Dr. Ramzi Razem quests for the lost Noor stones with his organization “The 99 Steps Foundation.” There are many naysayers at Dr. Ramzi’s presentations who call it mere myth until, one day, something extraordinary happens…

From The 99 - Noora, the Light

Those who are able to activate the Noor Stones are called gem-bearers. We learn later on that the Noor Stones choose their bearers, therefore they are useless if possessed by anyone other than the ones destined to bear them.

The first female character we are introduced to is the 18-year-old Dana Ibrahim (pictured above) in the United Arab Emirates. Being the daughter of a wealthy father makes her a target for many criminals, and this truth soon dawns on her when a car explodes outside of her university. Amidst the chaos, a group of thugs drag her into a van and speed her off to an isolated prison. Dana has faith that her father will pay the ransom, but just in case, she starts calculating the intervals in which the guards give her food and leave her unwatched, and starts digging a tunnel with a spoon, all whilst wearing a blindfold and having her hands tied. After many days of digging in the darkness, she stumbles upon a magical gem that radiates with extraordinary light.

Her abductors discover the tunnel and then drag her into another dark room. Angry with tears rolling down her eyes, Dana decides not to give up, and the magical gem she found shines light and reveals a ventilation shaft for her to climb into. She crawls to the end of the shaft but comes to a dead end because the exit is locked! Magically, the Noor Stone pours light into the lock and cracks the combination, setting Dana free and racing to safety. However, she is frightened because wherever she turns her head, she sees the light and darkness that exists within all human beings.

This is visualized brilliantly in the comic book, showing people filled with light, but also with stains of darkness. She says, “It’s not about one person, one place, it’s about who we are.” These words allude to how every human being has light, or goodness, within them, but there are dark elements too that come from the external world. As she is terrified by these visions, she looks within herself and sees an enormous amount of light, but she doesn’t believe it; she doesn’t believe there is goodness in her.

She struggles with self-doubt — her mother died a long time ago and her father mysteriously did not take immediate action in paying the ransom. When she returns home, she sees that he is filled with more darkness than anyone she has come across. Because of this, she feels un-loved and unneeded; she feels like she failed her father somewhere in her life and didn’t deserve to be saved.

Upon meeting Dr. Ramzi at “The 99 Steps Foundation,” she learns from him that the Noor Stones chose her because of something within her. Dana is reluctant to believe until she wears the gem stone around her neck and sees the light within Dr. Ramzi. She tears and says, “I never thought I’d have hope again.” Dr. Ramzi tells her that she is one of the 99: Noora, the Light.

Dana Ibrahim, or Noora, is quickly becoming one of my favorite female characters in comic books. I was saddened that there have only been 7 issues of The 99 released in the United States so far (there are 12 issues in the Middle-East) because, in my opinion, Noora is the type of character we need to see more of in comic books. When we are first introduced to her, she is wearing a red t-shirt and blue jeans. Although she is drawn with curves, it’s very subtle and not drawn out of proportion.

From Noora’s depiction, it is made very clear that Al-Mutawa and his creative team (which consists of artists and writers who have worked with DC Comics and Marvel Comics) are more interested in storytelling and character development rather than having full pages of women exposing their larges breasts or shameless close-ups. There was not a single panel in the comics where I found she was being objectified or exploited; she struck me as a real character, someone with her own mind, thoughts, and beliefs.

One of the most important lessons I learned from screenwriting class was to make characters accomplish things on their own; i.e. let them work through their problems because that allows them to learn and discover something new about themselves. This doesn’t mean that no one is allowed to assist them; it simply means that no one else should do all the work for them. Noora’s premiere issue reveals to us that she is a three-dimensional and strong-willed character because she broke out of the prison by herself. Even as she is beaten, bruised, and exhausted from days of digging, she refused to give up, and she found the Noor Stone not simply because it chose her, but because of the will-power that exists within her. Noora is not rescued by anyone and taken to the headquarters of “The 99,” she fights her way free against all odds — this shows us that she has agency; she has control over her kidnappers and refuses to fall victim to her captive state. As she raced across the city and saw the darkness and light within others, she was learning something new about the world and, more importantly, about herself.

Probably the most interesting part of Noora’s character is that much of the scenario I described above runs parallel with Islam’s Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Although Muhammad wasn’t kidnapped, he was meditating in a cave when he first received God’s revelation from the Angel Gabriel. Similarly, Noora is in a dark tunnel where she comes across the mystical Noor Stone, which clearly has Divine implications since it represents an attribute of God’s 99 Names. When Muhammad runs out of the cave, he is frightened because wherever he turns his face, he sees the Vision of Gabriel. He is frightened, but at the same time, realizes that he has reached a transition period in his life – he is making the self-discovery that he is the Prophet of God, to bring the people of the world from the depths of the darkness into the Light. When Noora escapes her dark prison, she is frightened by the new Visions she is sees wherever she looks. She is frightened, but at the same time, realizes that she has reached a transition period in her life — she is making the self-discovery that she is chosen by the Noor Stone, to help bring goodness and light into a dark world.

Whether Al-Mutawa intended Noora to be somewhat analogous to Muhammad is unknown, but the similarities cannot be denied. Likening a fictional character to a Prophet may be a very touchy subject among more conservative Muslim communities, but if these aspects of Noora’s story are inspired by Muhammad’s mystical experience with Gabriel, then I believe this is a very positive and timely achievement. Many fictional characters like Neo of The Matrix, Anakin Skywalker of Star Wars, and Aslan of The Chronicles of Narnia have come to symbolize Jesus (peace be upon him), so it’s refreshing to see a positive fictional character inspired by the Prophet Muhammad (and even more so considering those horrid Danish cartoons!).

Noora has fascinating powers such as spreading waves of light from within herself, deflecting darkness that exists inside of her enemies, and she can detect who is trustworthy since she can see what is within people. She can also create optical illusions to make her and fellow 99 members invisible. There is one scene in the comic book where the characters are being chased, and in order to lose the crowd, Noora makes an illuminated “copy” of herself running down another side of the street, while in actuality, she is really hiding in an alley. The “copy” that the people are chasing is really just a trick of light.

From The 99 - Hadya, The GuideAnother female character worth mentioning from The 99 is Amira Khan (pictured left), a Pakistani-British teenager who makes her first appearance in issue # 5. With her Noor Stone, she is Hadya, The Guide. She has the ability to map out cities, countries, and even entire solar systems. As written in the comic book, her “brain functions like a telephoto satellite and global positioning tracking system,” and sometimes her maps are so detailed that they are projected as three-dimensional images that move all around her.

In her debut issue, she helps a U.S. senator find his lost son in the Colorado Mountains. Like Noora, Hadya’s dress is relatively modest. In her super-heroine suit, it may be argued that she is drawn stereotypically with the leather clothing, but there is nothing extremely provocative about it. What’s important is that she is given background for her character — we see her living with her uncle, suggesting that she has lost her parents (though nothing has been mentioned about it thus far) and we see her trying to understand who she is with these new-found powers of hers.

Neither Noora nor Hadya wear hijaab , but there is a female Iranian character named Buran who does. Although she is not a gem-bearer, she plays a prominent role in helping the group on their missions. When we first see her, she wears hijaab while showing some of her hair, as women in Iran typically wear it, but that is changed in the next 6 issues. It seems that the writers decided to make her wear the full hijaab, i.e. to cover her hair completely.

Buran offers sarcasm and humor to balance out Dr. Ramzi’s often serious tone, and it’s also nice to see a character wearing the hijaab and not looking oppressed. Al-Mutawa has stated that he chose to include a mixture of Muslim women wearing and not wearing hijaab, and this is important because it shows audiences how diverse our community is. But the complaint I would have about Buran is that she is limited to being an assistant and wardrobe designer — just because a woman wears hijaab, does that mean she is not capable of being a gem-bearer? In the upcoming issues, I’m very confident that there will be (and there should be) a Muslim character that wears hijaab and is one of the 99. According to interviews, a new character will be introduced named Batina, the Hidden, and she will be wearing a burqa. Hmm, burqa, hidden… hey, it works!

Although we can find some similarities between The 99 and the X-Men, the comic book is a huge step in the right direction for Islamic literature. The 99 is receiving positive reviews from popular comic book websites such as The Comic Book Gazette and is distributing their next set of comics to the U.S. next fall.

The 99 borrows elements from Islamic culture, creates an original story, and introduces us to strong-willed and positive female characters. Stereotypes about Muslim women are broken even without overemphasizing on the femininity of the characters and the roles they play, and instead the writers focus on making the characters real – people we can relate to.

The 99 is a breath of fresh air in the comic book world and the creative team should be applauded for its positive representation of Muslim women. I’m hoping that it will reach wider audiences and help promote positive depictions of female characters. There is room for improvement in The 99 though. The writers prefer not to discuss the religion of the characters because they believe it will disrupt the universal message of the comic book, but I personally believe it won’t create a barrier at all. If anything, it will help break more stereotypes and raise awareness for more important issues, like what is it like to be a Muslim in a post 9/11 world, or what is it like being a superhero and coping with your religious identity? Not all of the 99 members are Muslims, but this creates a wonderful opportunity for the characters to explore themselves and learn new things from each other. As I mentioned above, it is significant to discuss issues that confront the Muslim world today, and through a medium such as comic books, we can truly convey important messages that will inspire a large body of people.

Download electronic copies (in English) of The 99 at

Jehanzeb is a film student who writes about Islam, Feminism, Politics, and Media. This piece was originally published on his blog.

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